Market Bucks

EBT process redesign for our client, Atlanta Farmers Markets

EBT User (optional)

Market Manager

Vendor

Overview

The Problem

Many farmers markets in Atlanta accept EBT credit, but they have to use a government-regulated system to distribute this credit, and not all farmers market vendors can have access to these systems. Thus, the farmers market management has to circumnavigate this system by exchanging credit for wooden tokens, which allow EBT users to buy food from vendors with these tokens. While this token system is very straightforward, it is also cumbersome, prone to loss, and invites a lot of stigma for EBT users. The managers of these markets also have to hand-write token amounts from each vendor and report them in a spreadsheet for vendor reimbursements, which takes time and is also prone to error.

The Solution

Our team reinvented the EBT process at Atlanta's CFM farmers markets by creating Market Bucks: a digital system which managers, vendors, and EBT users can use. This system involves a card, much like a gift card, where EBT users can upload their EBT credit instead of using wooden tokens. The card will also be charged using the Market Bucks app, and all transactions will be stored on our system, eliminating a lot of the reporting process that managers had to do in order to reimburse vendors for the tokens. Overall, this solution makes the process a lot more efficient, decreases stigma felt by EBT users, and makes fresh produce more accessible to a large group of people.

My Roles

• Created storyboards to visualize the different processes

• Designed initial wireframes of screens

• Wired together screens for prototypes in Invision

• Facilitator of heuristic evaluations and mock farmers market

My Team

• Me

• Bang Tran

• Rachel Feinberg

• Suyash Thakare

Methods Used

• Background and Domain Research

• Interviews

• Brainstorming and Ideation (Sketching Design Alternatives and Storyboarding)

• Feedback on Design Alternatives

• Prototyping

• Think Aloud Protocol

• Heuristic Evaluations

• Mock Farmers Market

Research Process

Background and Domain Research

Below are images that we obtanied from our research on the EBT process at farmers markets, how it works, and the pain points associated with it.

EBT Process in CFM Farmers Markets

Wooden Tokens given to EBT Customers to exchange for food purchases

Handwritten report of tokens at each vendor that the manager has to track and report again into Excel

Market Managers


• Process EBT Cards into a currency that is usable at the farmers market

• Give EBT Customers the proper amount of funds as part of the Georgia Fresh for Less program

• Collect the value of EBT transactions from Vendors so that the Vendors may be properly reimbursed

• Report weekly EBT data in internal CFM systems and external partner systems

Vendors


• Accept EBT funds for payment at their booths

• Reimbursed by Market Managers for the goods sold to EBT Customers

EBT Users


• Use EBT funds at the farmers market to purchase goods

The EBT Process needs to...

• Process the EBT funds into something that is accessible and usable by both EBT Customers and Vendors at the farmers markets

• Allow EBT users to purchase products with the processed form of EBT funds

• Allow Vendors to accept the processed form of EBT funds

• Allow Market Managers to track and report EBT spending data (e.g. how much EBT funds did a vendor accept during the market?)

Interviews

5Market Managers

5Vendors

4EBT Users


We conducted semi-structured interviews with market managers, vendors, and EBT users at a farmers market in order to understand an overview of frustrations with the system. We used this data to construct our usability criteria and task analysis for the system.

Results from interviews:

Market Managers


• Take time to count tokens

• Do not like redundant reporting of EBT

• Have a hard time tracking tokens

• Use technology when necessary

• Slightly tech savvy

• Like efficiency

• Have delays between vendor reimbursements

• Found errors with token counting from both managers and vendors

Vendors


• Are pro-technology

• Comfortable using technology for business

• Like simplicity

• Want management to take care of reporting EBT

• Like digital reimbursement

• Prefer sooner reimbursement time - current time is unreliable

• Do not like that reimbursements cannot be traced back to their corresponding market day

• Not happy that reimbursement amount is sometimes incorrect

EBT Users


• Have smartphones

• Are tech savvy

• Believe that EBT tokens can separate EBT users from other customers

• Forget or misplace physical tokens

Task Analysis constructed from our interview of the system:

Design Process

Brainstorming and Ideation


Brainstorming Sketches

EBT User Design Alternative 1: Market Bucks Card

EBT User Design Alternative 2: Market Bucks Basket

EBT User Design Alternative 3: Market Bucks App

Vendor App

Manager App

Feedback on Design Alternatives

We brought our three alternate design ideas for EBT users to two farmers market managers, who gave feedback on these designs to help us choose which design idea to move forward with.


Quotes from our feedback session:


On the Card:

"“This makes sense to me, and the cards wouldn’t cost that much to produce, since the wood tokens are expensive.”


"“Overall this is the one I like the most. It’s the simplest and makes the most sense for our organization. Cards are easy.”


On the Basket:

"“Okay, maybe that was harsh, but we would not have anywhere to store all these. Grant Park has 2000+ people every market. We would need a lot of baskets”


"“What if you have a lot of stuff in the basket and it’s really heavy to lift up to scan?”


On the App:

"“I feel like this has too many steps. It’s interesting but it’s a little complicated to understand and explain.”


"“I don’t really like downloading super specific apps that have just one function, so I don’t really like this one.”




From this feedback, we decided to go with the Market Bucks card for EBT users.

Prototyping


QR Card

Market Manager, Vendor, and Optional EBT User Apps


EBT User (optional)

Market Manager

Vendor

Usability Testing

Think Aloud Protocol

2Market Managers

3Systems to Evaluate

13Tasks Performed


Market managers, who also knew of the perspectives of vendors and EBT users, ran through specified tasks on all three aspects of our systems. By thinking aloud while conducting the tasks, we gained feedback on if the system met the requirements for ease of use and understandability.


Results from Think Aloud Protocol:

Market Manager App


• Felt that the app would speed up the process of reporting and loading tokens

• Reporting page items did not seem clickable, even though they were

• Decimal points need to be added to the amount

• Simple and straightforward

• Nice to not have to count tokens when taking payment

• Wouldn't "miscount tokens or lose them"

• Choices on hamburger menu easy to identify and move between

• What about refunds or correcting mistakes from charging the card the wrong amount?

Vendor App


• Vendors should not be able to see EBT user balance automatically since it is private information - should be optional based on the EBT user

• More accurate than counting tokens

• Choices on hamburger menu easy to identify and move between

• Demical points need to be added to the amount

• Needs an easy way to switch between this app and Square for transactions

EBT User App and MB Card


• Log in screen was confusing with the multiple and unnecessary options on the screen

• Dates on reports page did not seem clickable, even though they were

• Liked that it did not require an account

• Transaction history useful to EBT users

• Market Bucks card much easier and faster to use than tokens

• Market Bucks card has more "dignity" than the tokens

Heuristic Evaluations

3Evaluators

3Systems to Evaluate

10Tasks Performed

8Nielsen's Heuristics used

Results from Heuristic Evaluations:

Market Manager App

Location: Adding Funds

Error prevention: Increase the font size of the amount that the user is charged

User control and freedom: "Home page" does not feel like a home page

Location: Market Reports Page

Recognition rather than recall: It would be easier to select the market first and then the day

Error prevention/Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Small text for date, didn't notice dates initially

Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Add table headers

Consistency and standards: "Finish" button on export confirmation looks different from others without bolded letters

Location: Editing Tokens

Error prevention: Accidentally clicking outside the pop-up might cause confusion

Consistency and standards: The terminology of token and EBT should be the same, confusing otherwise

Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors: The number of colored dots doesn't equal the number of tokens added

Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Didn't click the edit button at first

Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Make the + and - look clickable, and add an overlay behind the pop-up

Vendor App

Location: Current Balance

Consistency and standards/Match between system and real world: Balance shouldn't be shown to the vendor for EBT user privacy

Recognition rather than recall: Info visibility, hierarchy

Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Don't need "market bucks" in the current balance heading

Consistency and standards: Card number text is a bit small - what would be the standard minimum size?

Location: Menu

Error prevention: Was tempted to click "Market Reports" at first when navigating to "Today's Sales"

User control and freedom: Visibility of "Today's Sales" low

Location: Market Report

Recognition rather than recall: Grouping by date would help

Error prevention: Pick farmers markets first and then the date

Consistency and standards: Provide more details about transactions

EBT User App

Location: Sign-in Page

Recognition rather than recall: Didn't immediately notice "check balance" button, had to scan screen

Location: Remember Card

Error prevention/Match between system and the real world: Give feedback about storage of information

Consistency and standards: Is the card number text in a standard-size app font? It seems small

Location: Purchase History

Error prevention: Accidentally clicking outside the pop-up might cause confusion

Recognition rather than recall: Looking at purchase history alone may not be useful - would like to see how much was added to the card as well

Consistency and standards/Recognition rather than recall: Make it obvious that you can see the details of each transaction

Aesthetic and minimalistic design: Didn't sense that the date could be clicked - maybe add an arrow?

Recognition rather than recall: No name of market

Mock Farmers Market

3Participants

1System to Evaluate

2Tasks Performed


The mock farmers market was a simulation of how the Market Bucks card system would perform compared to the current token system in an environment similar to that of a real farmers market. This evaluation method allowed us to collect qualitative data during the process of our participants using the Market Bucks card and the token system to compare tasks such as loading a card with EBT funds and purchasing an item at a vendor. Two team members were mock managers and vendors, while one team member was a note taker.

Map of simulated farmers market

EBT User Persona (given to participants)

Results from Mock Farmers Market:

• Overall, the Market Bucks card performed better with increased efficiency and security, and decreased stigma

• Token system was frustrating to count out and time consuming

• Market Bucks offered more similarity and belonging with credit card users

Final

What I Learned

• Designing for multiple users in one system is hard, and it takes a lot of consideration from multiple methods in order to implement a system that meets the needs from lots of different users and criteria.

• Working under a strict context (such as this one, with limited internet capabilities, funding, and barriers to technology) means that you won't always be able to implement everything you would ideally want in a system for the sake of your users.

• Sometimes the simplest technological solution is the best one (found in the Market Bucks card).

Future Considerations

• How do we account for the limited internet connection in farmers markets? When the internet is down, how can we still take Market Bucks payments through the system?

• While the Market Bucks system allows the EBT user to feel more like a regular card user, the colors on the Market Bucks card are still loud and unique with the title of the system on it. If other people catch wind that Market Bucks exists for the purposes of EBT, the card still might not take away from the stigma. In the future, we would either make the design of the card more similar to a normal credit card, or expand the Market Bucks to generic farmers market gift cards so that the card would not be distinguishable between gift cards and EBT balances.